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An alloy steel is a steel to which one or
more of such elements as nickel, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, titanium, cobalt,
tungsten, or vanadium have been added. The addition of these elements gives steel greater
toughness, strength, resistance to wear, and resistance to corrosion.
Alloy steels are called by the
predomination element which has been added. Most of them can be welded, provided special
electrodes are used. The more common elements added to steel are:
of chromium are added to steel the resulting product is a metal having extreme hardness
and resistance to wear without making it brittle. Chromium also tends to refine the grain
structure of steel, thereby increasing its toughness. It is used either alone in carbon
steel or in combination with other elements such as nickel, vanadium, molybdenum or
||The addition of
manganese to steel produces a fine grain structure which has greater toughness and
produces the greatest hardening effect of any element except carbon and at the same time
it reduces the enlargement of the grain structure. The result is a strong, tough steel.
Although molybdenum is used alone in some alloys, often it is supplemented by other
elements, particularly nickel or chromium or both.
||The addition of
nickel increases the ductility of steel while allowing it to maintain its strength . When
large quantities of nickel are added(25-35%), the steels not only become tough but develop
high resistance to corrosion and shock.
||Addition of this
element to steel promotes fine grain structure when the steel is heated above its critical
range for heat treatment. It also imparts toughness and strength to the metal.
||This element is
used mostly in steels designed for metal cutting tools. Tungsten steels are tough, hard,
and very resistant to wear.
function of cobalt is to strengthen the ferrite. It is used in combination with tungsten
to develop red hardness; that is, the ability to remain hard when red hot.